Malvaceae Info (Home)
Craigia is a living genus with one or two (the 2nd may be extinct) species in southern China. It was common in the Tertiary of western North America, Europe and Asia.
The European Craigia bronni is known from flowers, fruits and pollen. The fruits were previously known as Pteleaecarpum bronnii, Pteleaecarpum europaeum or Ulmis bronnii, and the flowers as Tilia gieskei. Leaves referred to Dombeyopsis lobata Unger may also belong to this species. Craigia bronnii is known from the Miocene of Greece, the Miocene and Oligocene of Germany, and the Oligocene of Hungary and the Czech Republic. 
Leaves assignable to Dombeyopsis lobata have also been placed in Dombeyopsis grandifolia Unger, Dombeyopsis sidaefolia Unger, Dombeyopsis tiliaefolia (A. Braun) Unger, Ficus dombeyopsis Unger, Ficus tiliaefolia (A. Braun) Heer, Cecropia europaea Ettingshausen, Cecropia heerii Ettingshausen and Sterculia dombeyopsis (Unger) Schimper .
Craigia is recorded from the Palaeogene of Sakhalin, and the Eocene Green River Fm of the Rocky Mountain region. Craigia oregonensis is recorded from the Lower Oligocene of Oregon.
Fruits of Craigia are recorded from the Eocene of China.
Florissantia is an extinct malvaceous genus found in Eocene and Oligocene deposits in western North America, from Colorado to British Colunbia, to which is given the vernacular name of stone rose. Flowers, fruits and pollen are all found. Fossils of Florissantia were formerly placed in Porana (Convolvulaceae) and Holmskioldia (Verbenaceae).
Three species are recognised; Florissantia speirii (Lesquereux) Manchester from the Oligocene of Oregon, Florissantia quilchenensis (Mathewes & Brooke) Manchester from the Middle Eocene of British Columbia and Washington, and Florissantia ashwillii Manchester from the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene of Oregon, on the basis of differences in perianth and anther morphology.
The flowers are borne on long (up to 3 cm long) pedicels and have a large (2.5-5.3 cm diameter), shallowly campanulate, 5-lobed, persistent, fused, calyx. The ovary is superior, 5-locular, with a pentagonal outline. There is a single style with 5 style arms. There are 5 stamens with bifurcate filaments toped by stout anthers or half-anthers. The pollen is oblate, 20-32 µm equatorial diam, 3(-4)-colporate, with short colpi and reticulate ornamentation.
Florissantia speirii has also been recorded under the name Florissantia physalis Knowlton, Holmskioldia speirii (Lesquereux) MacGinitie, Porana speirii Lesquereux andPorana similis Knowlton.
In Florissantia speirii, at least, each sepal has 5-7 prominent veins.
The fruits have a large, persistent, membranous calyx.
A wood specimen with the characteristics of Reevesia was described as the new species Reevesia japonoxyla by Terada amd Suzuki.
Fossil fruits of Reevesia are reported from the Lower Miocene of Bohemia, together with associated seeds (Saportaspermum) and foliage ("Ficus" truncata).
Saportaspermum occidentalis is found in the Oligocene of Oregon. I don't know whether this represents a Reevesia or some other plant.
See also Intratriporopollenites.
The limes or lindens, genus Tilia, have a pollen record extending as far back as the middle Palaeocene, and a macrofossil record dating from the Eocene. The earliest records are from western North America, which, oddly, is one of the two northern temperate deciduous forest regions (the other is the Himalayas) from which TIlia is absent. A considerable number of fossil species have been described, but although the inflorescence bracts of Tilia are distinctive, not all of these are correctly assigned to this genus (e.g Tilia gieskei is Craigia bronnii). The fossil range of Tilia is more extensive than that of the living species; apart from western North America it is also found in high latitude localities such as Alaska, Beringia, Kamchataka, etc, where it was a member of the ArctoTertiary Flora, and it has also been recorded from Tibet.
Bracts similar to the living species Tilia endochyrsea, i.e. with the peduncle only fused to the extreme base of the bract, are widely distributed in the Tertiary of western North America (late Eocene to Miocene) and Europe (early Miocene to Pliocene). Bracts similar to the other modern species, i.e. with the peduncle fused to the basal third of the bract, are known from the middle and late Tertiary of Asia and from the Pliocene of Europe. A third type, with orbicular bracts, is shown by the fossil Tilia circularis.
Tilia speciosissima Knowlton, recorded from the Palaeocene Raton Fm for the southwestern USA, and Tilia weedii Knowlton, recorded from the Palaeocene, may not belong to Tilia [f]. The latter may be a synonym of Celtis aspera
"Tilia" wodehousei is a pollen species recorded from the latest Cretaceous of Colorado and New Mexico. Its disappearance is one of the markers of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. .
"Tilia" cretacea Hollick is recorded from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Kaltag Fm, which is to early too represent a genuine Tilia.
"Tilia" antiqua is caprifoliaceous (Viburnum tilioides).
Tilia pollen, unspecified as to species, is reported from the Oligocene of the southeastern USA.
Other published names include Tilia atavia, Tilia compacta, Tilia harutoriensis, Tilia inserata, Tilia irtyschensis or irtyshensis, Tilia megacarpa, Tilia meisenensis, Tilia ovoidea, Tilia praeparvifolia, Tilia praeplatyphyllos, Tilia pseudinstructa, Tilia remoteseirata (T. remotiserrata?) and Tilia waltheri.
Material referred to Triumfetta is found in Eocene deposits in Yellowstone.
Malvaceae Info (Home)
© 2005, 2006, 2007 Stewart R. Hinsley