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Calyx in fructu patentissimus. Capsula polycocca, superne depresso-plana, stellariformis; carpellis radiantibus parietibus demum obliteratis apertis. Cætera fere Sidæ
ANODA, Cav. Diss. 1. p. 38. t. 10, 11, & 1c. 6. t. 431. Kunth. 1. c. p. 265. DC. Prodr. 1. p. 458. Schlect. in Linnæa, 11. p. 205. Endl. Gen. 5287.
CALYX naked (destitute of an involucel), deeply five-cleft, the segments valvate in æstivation. PETALS 5, obovate, convolute in æstivation, hypogynous. STAMENS numerous, monadelphous in a simple hypogynous column, the dilated base of which is united with the claws of the petals: FILAMENTS all arising from the summit of the column: ANTHERS reniform, one-celled, two-valved. OVARIES numerous (10 to 20), closely united in a circle depressed ring around a central receptacle: STYLES as many, united below: STIGMAS terminal, capitate. OVULE solitary in each carpel, resupinate-pendulous from the summit of the inner angle of the cell, almost anatropous; the raphe therefore dorsal and superior; the micropyle centripetal-superior.
FRUIT of 10 to 20 closely combined radiate-spreading carpels, subtended by the spreading persistent calyx, orbicular, strongly depressed (the upper surface flat, the lower convex); the carpels usually beaked on the back, indehiscent, the whole interior parietes or dissepiments obliterated, the remainder at maturity falling away from the dilated receptacle in the form of a kind of replum. SEED nearly horizontal, the raphe of hilum superior; the testa crustaceous. EMBRYO inflexed or incurved in sparing albumen: COTYLEDONS foliaceous, cordate, replicate-infolded: RADICLE centripetal-superior.
HERBS usually hirsute, with alternate angulate or hastate-lobed leaves on slender petioles, subulate stipules, and solitary axillary peduncles bearing single flowers. Corolla violet, white, or yellow.
ETYMOLOGY. The origin and application of the name are not explained by Cavanilles. It has been thought to come from ανοδοσ, impassable, impervious; the application of which is not apparent. But Schlechtendal (in Linnæa, 11, p. 205) has directed attention to the true source of the name, which is mentioned by Burmann (Thesaur. Zeyl. p. 1) as the Ceylonese generic appellation of Abutilon and some other allied plants.
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. A genus of six or seven known species, all native of Mexico. One of them was also found growing spontaneously around Lima, by Dombey; and it has recently been gathered by Dr. Riddell in Texas, where it is doubtless indigenous. A. cristata, Schlecht. (A. triloba and A. Dilleniana, Cav.) has long been in cultivation.
NOTE. Anoda is a tolerably well-marked genus, differing from Sida in the depressed stellate fruit, from Abutilon in the solitary ovules, and from both in the obliteration of the dissepiments of the originally many-celled capsular fruit, the firmer exterior part of each carpel at length falling away from the axis like a kind of replum, usually carrying the seed with it. The column is slightly five-lobed at the summit, (the lobes opposite the petals, in the normal mode of Malvaceæ,) and the styles also show a tendency to form five parcels, which are deflexed between the divisions of the stamens. The species are not yet well distinguished.
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