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Involucellum 515-phyllum, persistens. Stamina sæpius indefinite. Stigmata 10, capitata. Fructus 5-coccus; carpellis acheniiformibus monospermis, fere discretis (nudis vel apice 3-aristatis). Radicula infera. Pedunculi uniflori.
PAVONIA, Cav. Diss. 3. p. 132. t. 4549. Lam.
Ill. t. 585. Adr. Juss. in St. Hil. Fl. Bras. 1. p. 120. t. 4447. Endl.
PAVONIA, LOPIMIA, LEBRETONIA, GOETHEA, etc, Nees & Mart., DC.
MALACHE, Trew, Ehret. t. 50
THORNTONIANA, Reichenb. Consp. p. 202
CALYX persistent, involucellate with from five to fifteen persistent bracts, five-cleft; the segments valvate in æstivation. PETALS obovate, convolute in æstivation, spreading, or sometimes convolute-connivent, the claws united with the base of the stamineal column. STAMENS numerous, rarely few or definite, monadelphous in a simple column, which is shorter or a little longer than the corolla, and naked and five-toothed at the apex; the FILAMENTS arising from towards the summit or from nearly the whole length of the column: ANTHERS reniform. OVARIES 5, situated opposite the petals, more or less united in a five-lobed ring around a small central axis: STYLES united into one, which is ten-cleft at the summit: STIGMAS terminal, capitate, minutely hispid. OVULE solitary in each carpel, peritropous-ascending from the inner angle towards the base of the cell; the micropyle inferior.
FRUIT pentacoccous; the acheniiform carpels united barely at the base and obovate or rounded, or rarely by contiguous plane faces, dry, crustaceous or coriaceous, naked or sometimes armed at the apex with three retrorsely hispid awns, separating at maturity, indehiscent, or somewhat two-valved. SEED solitary, ascending, conformed to the cell, obovate-reniform, acute at the base. ALBUMEN little or none. EMBYRO incurved: COTYLEDONS foliaceous, cordate, plaited in the middle and chrysaloid-infolded: RADICLE inferior.
SHRUBS, or rarely herbaceous plants, with alternate and petioled stipulate leaves, and usually solitary flowers on axillary peduncles. Corolla yellow, white, rose-color, or red.
ETYMOLOGY. Dedicated to Joseph Pavon, a Spanish botanist who accompanied Dombey and Ruiz to South America, and became one of the authors of the Flora Peruviana..
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. A genus of a considerable number of species, mostly with handsome flowers, nearly restricted to tropical America and India. Two Mexican species extend into Texas; and another, the Malva Le Contei of Buckley (in Sill. Jour. 45. p. 176), resembling the Brazilian P. hastata, Cav., was found by Major Le Conte in Georgia.
NOTE. Pavonia, as left by Adr. Jussieu, who has best characterized it, exhibits a series of forms which too closely connect it with Urena on the one hand, and with Malvaviscus on the other. The typical state of the genus is well represented by our figure. The Pavoniæ Urenoideæ of Jussieu (§ Typhalea, DC.) have the cocci tipped with three retrorsely barbed awns; while Urena has them hispid or echinate all over the back with glochidate bristles, has fewer anthers usually on very short filaments, and a five-cleft involucel. But P. Le Contei, Torr. & Gray, ined., with naked carpels has also (judging from flowers which are not in good condition) very few and subsessile anthers, and the five leaflets of the involucel are a little united. P. Drummondii, Torr. & Gray, Fl., on the other hand, having convolutely connivent (scarlet) petals, and a filiform exserted and soon spirally twisted column, to which may be added a fruit which is at first fleshy, although separable into five cocci, belongs to the P. Malvaviscoideæ of Jussieu (Malvaviscus? § Anotea, DC., but the petals are auriculate). This group should probably be restored to Malvaviscus, or form a distinct genus.
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