Up: Transcriber's Preface
Previous: Malva
Next: Sidalcea


Involucellum nullum vel 1–3-phyllum persistens. Petala cuneiformis, truncata, apice sæpe erose-denticulata. Tubus stamineus, style, ovula, etc., ut in Malva. Carpella plurima, in rostrum nudum breve crassum pl. m. incurvum seu rectiusculum desinentia, clausa, nunc tarde dehiscentia, intus processu ligulæformi dorsali infra rostrum cavum aucta! Semen subreniforme. Embryo arcuatus: radicula infera. — Herbæ Boreali-Americanæ, perennes, humiles; caulibus e radice napiformi crassa adscendentibus aut procumbentibus; floribus sæpius longe penduculatis purpureo-rubris vel incarnatis

Callirrhoë, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Philad. 2. p. 181.

Nuttallia, Dick; Bart. Fl. N. Amer. 2. t. 62; Hook. Exot. Fl. t. 171, 172.

Malvæ spec., Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 225.

§1. MALVOIDEÆ. Involucellum ad basin calycis triphyllum; carpella suborbiculta, rostro et processo interno parvo inconspicuo

1. C. TRIANGULATA: hirto-pubescens; radice tuberosa; caulibus adscendentibus; foliis triangulatis vel hastatis, radicalibus subcordatis, caulinis infimis deltoideis acuminatis grosse crenatis longe petiolatis, superioribus incisis, summis laciniato-3–5-fidis; bracteis minimis; floribus paniculatis; pedicellis subaggregatis flore (rubro-purpureo) brevioribus; involucelli phyllis linearibus apice spathulatis calycis segmenta ovata subquantibus; carpellis lævibus rostello brevissimo apiculatis dorso uninerviis demum bivalvibus! — Malva triangulata, Leavenworth in Sill. Jour. 7. p. 62; Gray, Man. Bot. N. U. S. p. 70. M. Houghtonii, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 225. Nuttallia triangulata, Hook. Jour. Bot. 1. p. 197. N. cordifolia, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Philad. 7. p. 96. N. cordata, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1938. — Dry prairies, from Wisconsin and Iowa to Georgia. — This species in its inflorescence and in the minuteness of the hollow beak, which is incurved as the fruit ripens so as to escape notice, makes the nearest approach to Malva; but the structure is really the same with that which is displayed on a larger scale in the following section. A carpel is figured in Genera Amer. Bor-Orientalis Illustrata, 2. t. 216.

2. C. INVOLUCRATA: caulibus e radice napiformi longe procumbentibus pilis patentibus hirsutis; foliis pedato-5-partitis circumscriptione rotundatis, segmentis cuneatis insico-3–5-fidis, lobis dentibusque fol. Infimorum obtusis superiorum lanceolatis acutis; stipulos ovatis majusculis; pedunculis axillaribus solitariis unifloris folio longioribus; invollucelli phyllis lanceolatis calcyis laciniis lanceolatis attenuato-acuminatis dimidio brevioribus; carpellis (circ. 20) rotundatis undique rugoso-reticulatis apice incurvo complanato brevissime rostellatis omnino clausis. — Gray, Gen. Ill. 2. t. 217, ined. Nuttallia involucrata, Nutt. ex Torr. in Ann. Lyc. N. Y. 2. p. 172. Malva involucrata, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 226. — Plains, from the Platte in Texas and west to the Rocky Mountains. — I have for several years had this handsome species in cultivation in the Cambridge Botanic Gardens, from seeds taken from specimens gathered by Col. Fremont. It forms a very large root, which stands the winter well in the open air. The showy flowersa are cherry-red with a tinge of purple, deeper colored and one third smaller than in C. Papaver, and are produced from spring until late in autumn. On prolonged flowering stems the upper leaves are abortive, and a membranaceous bract, formed of the two united stipules, subtends the peduncle.

§2. EUCALLIRRHOËS. Involucellum nullum, vel in M. Papavere 3–1-phyllum sæpeque a flore pl. m. remotum. Carpella rostro subuncinato viridi nique processu interno conspicuo donata. Pedunculi uniflori, apicem versus sæpe articulati.

* Involucellum 1–3-phyllum, nunc in eadem stirpe nullum.

3. C. PAPAVER: strigoso-hirsutula; caulibus e radice tuberosa adscendentibus gracillimis; foliis radicalibus subcordatis 3–5-fidis lobis oblongis paucidentatis, caulinis digitato-5–3-partitis, laciniis lineari-lanceolatis plerumque integerrimis; pedunculatis axillaribus longissimis remotis; calycis laciniis parce hispidis ovato-lanceolatis attenuato-acuminatis; carpellis rugoso-reticulatis glabris rostro brevi incurvo apiculatis clausis. — Malva Papaver, Cav. Diss 2. p. 64. t. 15. f. 3; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 226 (excl. syn. sub C. triangul. citat.). M. nuttallioides, Croom in Sill. Jour. 26. p. 313. Nuttallia Papaver, Graham in Bot. Mag. t. 3287; Hook. in Jour. Bot. l.c. — Florida and Georgia to Texas, Arkansas, &c. Not rare in cultivation. Petals violet-red, an inch and a half long.

* * Involucellum omnino nullum

4. C. DIGITATA (Nutt.): glabriuscula, subglauca; caulibus adscendentibus gracillimis; foliis digitato-5–7-partitis, laciniis linearibus prælongis integerrimis rariusve 2–3-fidis, supremis simplicioribus; pedunculis axillaribus longissimis; calycis laciniis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis; carpellis doros pilosulis, cæt. ut in C. Papavere; floribus minoribus. — Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Philad. 2. p. 181. Nuttallia digitata, Hook. Exot. Fl. 3. t. 171, non Bart. Malva digitata, Torr. & Gray, l.c. — Prairies of Arkansas and Texas. Not well known. The fruit is smaller, and the beak of the carpels rather longer, than in the last, but smaller than in the following, from which it also differs in the rugose-pitted carpels, and in being less crested on the back, at the origin of the beak.

5. C. PEDATA: caule glabro erecto; foliis radicalibus imisque 5–7-fidis rotundatis, superioribus 3–5-partitis, segmentis laciniato-lobatis vel incisis, supremorum integrisuculis seu integerrimus; pedunculis paniculato-racemosis vel corymbosis, calycis glabri laciniis acuminatissimis; carpellis lævibus glabris dorso ad originem rostri maximi cristato-3-crenatis e basi subdehiscentibus. — Gray, Gen. Ill. 2. t. 218. Nuttallia pedata, Nutt. in Hook. Exot. Fl. 3. t. 172. N. digitata, Bart. Fl. N. Amer. 2. t. 162, quoad tab. Malva pedata, Torr. & Gray, l.c. excl. β. — Prairies of Arkansas, near Fort Smith, &c., Nuttall. Texas, Lindheimer. Cultivated in the Cambridge Garden from Texan seeds, where it flowers the first year like an annual, but also forms a thickened perennial root. The corolla is cherry-red (turning purple in drying), handsome, 1½ to 3 inches in diameter. Petioles often hirsute. Head of fruit smaller than in the last. — Well characterized by the smooth carpels, with a very large and thick beak.

6. C. MACRORHIZA: caulibus strigulosis humilibus e radice napiformi; foliis radicalibus oblongo-cordatis, primariis crenatis integris, sequentibus hastato-lobatis varie incisis, caulinis pedato-3–5-partitis segmento intermedio majore 3–7-fido vel laciniato; pedunculis corymbosis foliis sæpe brevioribus; floribus parvulis albidis; calycis strigosi laciniis ovato-lanceolatis; carpellis rugosissimis. — Sida macrorhiza, James! Mss. in Herb. Torr. Malva pedata β? umbellata, Torr. & Gray! Fl. 1. p. 227; Hook.! Lond. Jour. Bot. 6. p. 76. — Plains of the Platte, Dr. James, Fremont, Geyer. — An entirely distinct species.. The numerous stems, about a foot long, spring from a large edible root, which attains the diameter of from three to five inches. The peduncles are seldom two inches in length. The petals are white or nearly so, only half an inch long.

7. C. ALCÆOIDES: strigosa; caulibus erectis gracilibus; foliis "inferioribus triangulo-cordatis incisis" (Michx.), mediis hastato-5–7-partitis laciniatis, summis 3–5-sectis, segmentis linearibus; pedunculis corymbosis folia superantibus; floribus majusculis roseis vel albis; calycis hispidi laciniis triangulatis acutis; carpellis 10 hirsutulis dorso rugosissimis inferne dehiscentibus. — Sida alcæoides, Michx.! Fl. 2. p. 44; Torr. & Gray! Fl. 1. p. 234, & Suppl. p. 681. — Gravelly soil, Kentucky and Tennessee, Michaux, Dr. Currey (v. sp. in herb. Torr.). A foot high. Petals narrowly cuneiform, nearly an inch long. — Dr. Torrey (l.c.) noticed the conspicuous transverse dorsal process in the upper part of the cell of the carpel. It is, however, equally striking in the two preceeding species, with which this is entirely congeneric. In these, also, the seed does not entirely fill the cell (below the process), and falling back somewhat the umbilical sinus is at length often directed obliquely upward more or less; but the structure and insertion are not as in Sida.

Up: Transcriber's Preface
Previous: Malva
Next: Sidalcea