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3. SIDALCEA, Nov. Gen.

Calyx involucello nullo nudus. Petala integra vel obcordata. Tubus stamineus apice duplex, nempe in phalanges 5 exteriores pluriantheriferas petalis oppositis, aique circiter 10 interiores vel filamenta subindefinitia per paria coalita, solutus! Styli 5-9, introrsum stigmatosi. Ovulum in loculis solitarium, peritropo-adscendens. Capsule 5-9-cocca; carpellis membranaceis, reniformibus, muticis vel apiculatis, solubilibus, intus laceratione apertis. Semen adscendens, embryo arcuatus, et radicula infera ut in Malva. — Herbæ Am.-Bor. Occidentalis; foliis rotundatis plerisque palmatifidis, radicalibus integriusculis; caule virgato; floribus roseo-purpuries albisve, racemosis.

Sidæ sp., Lindl., Nutt., Torr. & Gray, Fl. l. c. no. 14-17.

A genus well marked in habit and character; distinguished from Sida (to which the species have been referrred on account of the naked calyx) by the ascending ovule and descending radicle as well as the unilateral stigmas, which occupy the whole inner face of the styles, as in Malva, &c.; from Malvastrum by the stigmas and the whole habit; from Callirrhoë by the beakless carpels; from Malva by want of an involucre and the fewer carpels; and from all by the elimination of the stamens from the tube in the form of an outer and an inner series, and the combination of the filaments, at least of the outer series, into distinct and definite phalanges. This peculiarity is evident in all the species upon inspection, but is carried to the maximum in S. diploscypha and the related species of the typical section. To which, if either, or the second section the Sida malvæflora of De Candolle (founded solely on a drawing by Moçino and Sesse) belongs, I cannot determine; perhaps to S. Neo-Mexicana. But, as Lindley has long since applied the name to the Oregon species, which again has been confounded with a third from California, it will be best to drop it altogether, or unilt the plant to which it really pertains can be identified.

§ 1. Phalangers exteriores staminum latæ membranaceæ, integræ, truncatæ, 5–8-antheriferæ, e medio columnæ exserentes, æstivatione convolutivæ; interiores terminales 10, angustæ, sæpius 2-antheriferæ; filamentis fere ad apicem coalitis.

1. S. DIPLOSCYPHA: annua, pilis patentissimis mollitier hirsuta; caule paniculato-ramosa; foliss rotundatis long petiolatis demum glabratis, radiculibus inciso-crenatis, caulinis 7-partitis, segmentis oblongis 2–3-fidis, floralibus sessilibus bracteisque 3–7-sectis segmentis lineari-filiformibus; floribus aggregatis brevissime pedicellatis; laciniis calycis 5-partiti lanceolatis sensim acuminatis; coccis liberis cochleato-reniformibus omnino muticis transversim-rugosis dorso sulcatis. — Gray, Gen. Ill. 2. t. 222. Sida diploscypha, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 234; Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. p. 236. t. 76. — Var. β MINOR: omnibus partis minoribus; ramis paucifloris; petalis in sp. sicco purpuratis. California, Douglas. β. California, Fremont, Hartweg. — The petals in Douglas's specimens are pale, and as if barely tinged with purple. In those of Fremont and Hartweg they are dark and dull purple, a hue probably assumed or much deepened in drying; and the whole plant is smaller and more slender. It is from Fremont's specimens that I have described the fruit, which consists of from 7 to 9 pretty large carpels; these are thin and membranaceous, and open by a rent at the inner angle as they separate. — The figure in Bot. Beech. does not show the division of the inner stamineal column at the summit into 10 narrow phalanges, of which five are alternate with the broad exterior phalanges, and five alternate with these

2. S. CALIFORNICA: perennis? undique cinereo-tomentosa; caule simplici stricto (pedali); foliis cordato-orbiculatis velutinis crenato-dentatis subincisis, inferioribus vix lobatis, summis 5–7-fidis brevipetiolatis; racemo simplici; calyce pedicello brevissimo bracteaque duplo longioribus, laciniis ovato-lanceolatis. — Sida Californica, Nutt.! in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 233. — Santa Barbara, California. Nuttall. — Most resembles S. humilis. The single specimen I have seen is barely in flower. The fruit is therefore unknown; but the ovule is ascending. The stamineal column is nearly as in the preceding.

3. S. DELPHINIFOLIA: annua; caule stricto simplici superne hirsutissimo; foliis (radicalibus non visis) caulinis 7-partitis sectisve, segmentis linearibus angustis (1½-1 unc. longis lineam latis) simplicibus; racemo denos multifloro basi foliato; calyce hirsutissimo 5-partito pedicello duplo longiore, laciniis lineari-lanceolatis; coccis reticulatis glabriusculis rostello molli erecto hispido apiculatis. — Sida delphinifolia, Nutt.! in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 235. — Santa Barbara, California, Nuttall. California, Hartweg. — I have drawn the character from a Hartwegian specimen (the specimen of Nuttall in Dr. Torrey's herbarium being imperfect), which, having the root, shows that the plant is an annual; but the radical leaves are wanting. Stem 14 inches high, terminated by a short raceme of crowded showy flowers. Calyx half an inch, the purple petals fully an inch, in length. Staminal column as in No. 1; the broad exterior phalanges strongly convolute in æstivation and inclosing the inner. Carpels 7 to 9, smaller than in No. 1, finely reticulated, tipped with a short, perhaps not persistent, hairy beak: when removed they leave a pretty large ventral portion attached to the short axis, which is conspicuously 7–9-winged. The fruit is figured in Gen. Ill. 2. t. 224.

§ 2. Phalanges exteriores ex apice columnæ exserentes, sæpe bifidæ, in filamenta 4–6 usque ad medium vel profundiora fissæ; interiores e filamentis subindefinitis inferne binatim connatis.

* Annuæ, paucifloræ

4. S. HARTWEGI: caule tenelle subsimplici apice 2–4-floro inferne foliisque parvis 5-partitis glabratis segmentis superiorum linearibus integris, imorum spathulatis apice interdum bilobis; bracteis minimis; calycis brevi-pedicellati tomentulosi laciniis triangulari-lanceolatis acuminatis; corolla lilacina. — California, Hartweg (No. 1669). — Plant 7-9 inches high. Segments of the leaves about half an inch long. Petals two thirds of an inch in length. Fruit unknown. — From the aspect and the disposition of the flowers, this plant would seem to be closely allied with S. diploscypha; but in the stamineal column it accords with the ensuing species.

** Perennes: flores virgato-racemosæ

5. S. HUMILIS: undique hispido-hirsuta; caulibus e radice tuberosa adscendentibus simplicibus (6–12 unc. altis); foliis radicalibus rotundis sinu apertis aut subtruncatis inciso-crenatis indivisis sublobatisve, caulinis (2–4) 5–7-partitis, segmentis apice trilobatis obtusis; racemo brevi (9–15-floro) basi foliato; calycibus pedicello longioribus, laciniis lanceolatis acuminatis; corolla roseo-purpurea. — S. malvæflora, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. p. 326; an DC.? — Var. ß humilior, foliis omnibus indivisis seu vix lobatis rotundato-reniformibus basi pl. m. truncatis. — California, Douglas, Fremont, Hartweg. ß From a Russian collection made in the Bay of San Francisco. — This species is not more than a quarter of the size of S. Oregana, which the leaves only an inch or little more in diameter, while the flowers are much larger, the petals being fully an inch in length. Fruit unknown.

6. S. OREGANA: caule virgato (1½–3-ped) superne cinereo-puberulo sæpe paniculato; foliis (hirsutis v. glabratis) radicalibus reniformi-orbiculatis 7–9-lobatis, primariis sinu apertissimis vel truncatis, caulinis 3–7-partitis, segmentis 2–3 fidis lobis apice 3-dentatis vel summorum integerrimis; racemo prælongo tomentello; calycibus tomentosis pedicellum superantibus seu æquantibus; laciniis triangulari-ovatis acuminatis demum attenuatis; corollo rosea vel "rubra"; coccis fere lævibus angulo interno apiculatis. — Sida malvæflora, Lindl. Bot Reg. t. 1036; Hook, Fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 108; Torr. & Gray, Fl. l. c., vix DC. S. Oregana Nutt.! in Torr. & Gray, l. c. (var. minor, glabrior). Nuttallia malvæflora, Fisch. & Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1837. Southern Oregon, Douglas, Nuttall, Geyer, Mr. Spalding. — Radical and lower leaves large, 3 or 4 inches in diameter. Petals half an inch in lenght.

7. S. NEO-MEXICANA: vide p. 23, No. 79

8. S. CANDIDA: vide p. 24, No. 80

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