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ANODA, Cav. A critical examination brings to light carpological differences
among the species of this genus which had only partially been detected before,
and had not been worked out. The subjoined arrangement of the forms known to me
will exhibit these points of structure, and to a certain extent set right the
nomenclature of at least the North American species.
§ 1. EVANODA. Seed and ovule horizontal or nearly so in the mostly
beaked carpels of the much depressed and radiatiform fruit, naked, or in one
species with an arilliform pellicular fragile coating, the disk or upper face
of the fruit strongly hispid or hirsute.
- Corolla violet or purple, varying occasionally to white: fruit mostly
surpassed by the widely spreading calyx, the top beset by scattered simple
bristles: herbage destitute of stellular, but commonly with some hispid
pubescence: slender peduncles nearly all in axil of leaves.
- A. HASTATA, Cav. Carpels 15 to 20, rather
conspicuously beaked; the dorso-basal portion wholly thin-scarious and
veinless, with slender midnerve, the sides or partitions completely obliterated
at dehiscence; seed quite naked. A. hastata, triloba,
& Dilleniana, Cav. Diss. t. 10, 11. A. cristata & A.
hastata, Schlecht. in Linnæa, xi. 210, 214. Sida cristata, L.
S. cristata, hastata, & Dilleniana, Willd.
These I take to be all of one species, of which the larger-flowered forms, with
petals about an inch long, are known only in cultivation. The typical A.
hastata, with upper leaves truly hastate or deltoid, and which comes north
to Texas and Arizona, has petals only half and inch, and in a depauperate form
only a quarter of an inch long. I find the character of the fruit invariable.
And this character of the fruit, as verified from the specimen in the
Candollean herbarium, also refers here A. triangularis, DC. Prodr. i.
459. Var. depauperata (Gray, Pl. Wright. ii. 23) is nothing more
than a slender and very small-flowered from.
- A. ACERIFOLIA, DC. Prodr. i. 459. Closely resembling
A. hastata and with leaves similarly varying: carpels short-beaked or
sometimes nearly pointless, the sides completely obliterated at dehiscence, the
base part of the dorsal portion thin-scarious as in the preceding, but the
whole gibbous upper part thicker and with strong and coarse reticulations, in
age bilamellar, its endocarpial portion (half embracing the seed) becoming
coriaceous and clathrate. S. hastata, Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 1341 ex DC.,
probably correctly so referred. Sida deltoidea, Hormem. Hort. Hafn. 650,
is perhaps the same; perhaps also brachy..., Reichenb; but
Schlechtendal, in his annotations on this genus, makes not mention of the neat
and really decisive characters which distinguish the species. From the appended
observation, A. hastata, A. Rich., Fl. Cub. 149, must be of the present
species. My Mexican specimens are, one from Acapulco (A. hastata, Hook.
& Arn. Bot. Beech. 411, at least in part), and from Batopolas in Chihuahua,
Palmer, 234 (these with mainly hastate and short-petioled leave and hardly any
cusp to the carpels); and from, Orizaba, Botteri, 1135, with subcordate or
deltoid leaves and distinctly cuspidate carpels. No. 86 of Fendler's Venezuela
collection is similar. This has some Maple-shaped leaves.
- A. ARIZONICA. Slender, a foot or two high, with
sparse and few hirsute hairs, otherwise nearly glabrous, small flowered: petals
3 lines long: leaves and also the fruit (of 8 to 11 conspicuously beaked
carpels) like those of A. hastata var. depauperata, but seed
invested more or less completely by a very thin and fragile veinless pelliculat
coating, which is probably of carpellary origin. S. Arizona,
Lemmon, 509. Leaves cordate, deltoid-ovate, or uppermost hastate.
- Var. DIGITATA. Leaves mostly hastate-digitate, the
prolonged middle lobed narrowly lanceolate or linear, and the two lobes of each
side linear and half-shorted. S. Arizona, Lemmon, 517 of coll.
- Corolla yellow: calyx shorted-lobed, and less explanate under the densely
and stellately hirsute fruit, which it hardly surpasses; upper flowers
naked-racemose: pubescence minute and stellular and above with some simple
soft-hirsute hairs, viscidulous.
- A. LANCEOLATA, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 411,
from the western side of Mexico, is nearly related to the following. It has the
back of the mature carpels similarly but more delicately clathrate reticulate,
the epidermal epicarp apparently not separating, seed hispidulous-scabrous, and
petals 9 lines long.
- A. WRIGHTII, Gray, Pl. Wright. ii. 22. New Mexico,
Wright: Mexico, Schaffner. This, having been received from the Berlin Botanic
Garden under the name of A. ...flora, was taken for that species in
Watson's Bibl. Index and in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 330, but it will be shown
that it is not the plant of Cavanilles. The dorsal portion of the 8 to 10
carpels is bilamellar at maturity, the endocarpial layer is not unlike that of
A. tr...s, but larger and more clathrate reticulate, loosely half
enveloping the barely puberulent seed.
§ 2. SIDANODA. Seed more or less suspended in
the 5 to 10 largely umbonate, merely puberulent carpels of the moderately or
hardly depressed fruit destitute of endocarpial coating: flowers small:
pubescence mostly fine and stellular, no bristly hairs.
- Corolla blue to bluish-white: calyx deeply cleft, rotately spreading under
the depressed fruit.
- A. THURBERI. Slender, a foot or two high, green and
barely puberulent or glabrate below the calyx, &c., puberulent-canescent:
lower leaves cordate and dentate, upper hastate: flowers mostly
paniculate-racemose: petals only 2 or 3 lines long: carpels 8 or 9, the whole
dorsal and thickish apical portions strongly 3-nerved or the nerves confluent
near the base: seed puberulent. S. Arizona, Thurber,
Wright, Lemmon. Chihuahua, Mexico, Pringle, 283,
distributed as "A. parviflora, var.". To this belongs part of
the two specimens taken for a depauperate from of A. hastata in Pl.
Wright. ii. 23: also the plant referred to in Pl. Thurb. 308.
- Corolla yellow, sometimes changed to pink in fading: calyx shorter and less
deeply cleft, ascending or appressed to and seldom surpassing the little
depressed fruit: its carpels and closely enwrapped seeds nearly vertical, the
inflexed apical portion short: plants paniculately branched and
- A. PENTASCHISTA, Gray, Pl. Wright. ii. 22. Slender,
a foot or two high, minutely puberulent and more or less cinereous: lower
leaves ovate or subcordate, somewhat 3 lobed; upper hastate or lanceolate,
uppermost linear: calyx 2 lines long, little shorter than the yellow corolla:
carpels 5, or not rarely 6 to 10, obovate-oval after dehiscence, the sides soon
obliterated: seed puberulent. S. Arizona to Texas, Wright,
- A. ABUTILOIDES. Taller and stouter, 3 or 4 feet
high, canescent, and branches with some loose hairs: leaves all cordate,
crenately serrate, caudate-acuminate, uppermost lanceolate: calyx 2 or 3 lines
long, the lobes broadly ovate and apiculate: petals 4 or 5 lines long, obovate,
yellow changing to pinkish in drying: carpels 5 to 7, when mature 2 lines high
and less deep, obscurely umbonate, septicidally separating almost whole, the
diaphanous inner walls tardily breaking up and uncasing the puberulent seed,
the permanent dorsla portion deep-cymbiform, thin-membraneaceous, with thicker
and firmer summit, disposed to split down the back into two valves.
Santa Catalina Mountains, S. Arizona, Pringle, 1882, distributed as "A.
pentaschista" and as "Sida Berlandieri, var."
§ 3. CLEISTANODA. Seed (wholly smooth and
glabrous) completely and permanently invested by a firm corrugate-reticulate or
at length clathrate (doubtless endocarpial) arilliform covering: habit, flowers
and pubescence of § 2.
- A. PARVIFLORA, Cav. Ic. v. 19, t. 431. Petals
"yellow," but in dried specimens seeming rather to be purplish:
radiate summit of fruit hirsute pubescent, and with short cusps or points;
dorsal and permanent portions of carpels comparatively firm in texture with a
stout midrib below, or basal part reduced to a very stout rib. Mexico.
Structure of the fruit ascertained from specimens which were cultivated in the
Paris Garden in 1814. Also indigenous ones from the northern part of Mexico, i.
e. in Chihuahua near Batopolas, Palmer, and near the city of Chihuahua,
- A. RETICULATA, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 368.
This species, in which the arilliform covering of the seed was first discovered
by Mr. Watson, has smaller and more lobed leaves, and at length elongated naked
raceme of flowers, small and "blue" corolla, and a different fruit
from that of A. parviflora. The carpels are more erect, wholly muticous,
barely puberulent, at maturity with exocarp bivalvular, this dividing the
capsule into 10 narrowly oblong almost membranaceous and barely concave valves,
liberating the still attached coarsely reticulated husks, each filled by a
A. CRENATIFLORA, Ort.. Dec. viii. 96. Not having this
part of Ortega's Decades, I cannot say if Cavanilles rightly referred this
species to A. parviflora. If so the name has a year's priority in
publication; but the petals being entire, the name may be passed by as false
for this species.
A. INCARNATA, HBK. Nov. Gen. & Spec. v. 266,
described from a plant cultivated in the Botanic Garden of Mexico, has not been
identified and perhaps is not of the genus.
A. PUBESCENS, Schlecht. in Linnæa, xi. 218,
from Mineral del Monte, Ehrenberg, is not made out.
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