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SIDA, L. Bentham has well indicated the conniving or erect tips or points
(when there are any) of the carpels for a good character of Sida, as
distinguished from Anoda, &c. To the peculiar sections named in Pl.
Fendlerianæ, viz. Pseudo-Malvastrum (the N. American species of
which are S. hederacea, S. lepidota , and
S. cuneifolia, Gray) and Pseudo-Napæa, a third may be
added, CALYXHYMENIA, for species which have the
ebracteolate calyx much accrescent around or under the fruit, and membraneous
or scarious, the name taken from S. calyxhymenia, Gay, of
Australia, and the section therefore including the Fleischeria of
Steudel and Steetz. Our species, S. physocalyx, Gray, Pl. Lindh. ii.
163, in which the 5-parted and angulate-bladdery fruiting calyx imitates that
of Nicandra, has rather peculiar and very thin-walled reticulated indehiscent
carpels with a beak-like apex. The homonymous S. physocalyx of F.
Müller, from Australia, is much later, and will find another name. Our
species of the section Malvinda appear to be as follows.
SIDA, § MALVINDA
- Species with a somewhat Stylosanthoid habit; the sessile or
short-peduncled flowers mainly at the summit of the low stems or branches and
involucrate by petioled leaves: petals reddish-purple.
- S. CILIARIS, L. Reaches Florida, and includes S.
involucrata, A. Richard, and S. anomala, St. Hil.
- Var. FASCICULATA, the narrow-leaved Texan and
Mexican form of the species. S. fasciculata, Torr. & Gray. S.
anomala, var. Mexicana, Moricand, which appears to be likewise S.
muricata, Cav. Ic. vi. 78, t. 597. Malvastum linearifolium, Buckley,
Proc. Acad. Philad. 1861, 449, is the same.
- Species with flowers not involucrate, either solitary or clustered in most
of the axils, or barely paniculate at the summit: calyx 5-angled, and petals
- Stems diffusely decumbent or prostrate and filiform: petioles and peduncles
long and slender: leaves somewhat cordate, small.
- S. DIFFUSA, HBK., with hardly a doubt, although the
flowers are not "violet," nor the fruit depressed at summit. S.
filiformis, Moricand, and S. filicaulis, Torr. & Gray. Texan,
Arizonian, and Mexican.
- S. SUPINA, L'Her. W. Indian and on the Florida Keys.
- Stem erect: leaves rather long-petioled and nearly all cordate or
subcordate; flowers not long-peduncled: carpels 1012, bi-mucronate or
- S. CORDIFOLIA, L. Reaches the Florida Keys.
- S. TRAGLÆFOLIA, Gray, Pl. Lindh. ii. 164.
Raised from Wright's seeds supposed to have been gathered in Texas, but
probably in S. Arizona, as we now have a form apparently of this species; but
with leaves less cordate, smaller, and more cinereous, from Arizona, collected
by Pringle and by Lemmon; and Palmer brought from Coahuila specimens connecting
these with the type.
- Stems erect and branching: leaves slender-petioled and truncate-obtuse or
retuse at base, from ovate-oblong to linear: a small tubercule under the base
of the petiole (but this occasionally obsolete): flowers small and nearly all
short-peduncled: carpels mostly 5. Species probably not indigenous, even on our
- S. SPINOSA, L., with comparatively broad and green
- S. ANGUSTIFOLIA, Lam., with linear or at least
narrow and canescent leaves, is doubtfully distinct. it is Englelmann's S.
- Stems erect: leaves mainly short-petioled or subsessile, acute or obtuse at
base but never cordate, usually destitute of tubercule under the petiole, but
this sometimes apparent in S. rhombifolia: carpels 8 to 12.
- Leaves cuneate-obovate or oblong-obovate to lanceolate, green, at most
cinereous puberulent: stems branching, leafy to the top: annuals in the U. S.,
probably incomers from Tropical America.
- S. RHOMBIFOLIA, L., with var. CANARIENSIS, Griseb. The genuine plant known by the single
subulate awn to the carpels.
- S. CARPINFOLIA, L. An equally variable species;
includes S. acuta, Burm., S. stipulata, Cav., S. glabra,
- Leaves mainly linear or linear-lanceolate and obtuse at both ends: carpels
bicuspidate or bimucronate just behind an inflexed short apex, or muticous:
- S. ELLIOTTII, Torr. & Gray, is a completely
glabrous species; with some peduncles or pedicels little shorter than the
subtending leaf, but many shorter than the calyx, even the long ones not
articulated except with the insertion. As far as can be seen, the imperfect
specimens from Key West referred by Chapman to S. Lindheimeri belong
- S. NEO-MEXICANA. A span to a
foot high, diffusely many stemmed from a ligneous base or root, minutely
puberulent, not cinereous: peduncles not articulated, all short or very short:
petals orange-yellow often changing to red: mature carpels muticous or barely
mucronulate. S. Elliottii, var.? Gray, Pl. Wright. ii. 21. S.
rhombifolia, var.? microphylla, Hemsl. Bot. Biol. Centr. Am. i. 105,
small-leaved form. Eastern part of New Mexico, Wright, Thurber,
Greene, &c. S. Arizona, Lemmon. Chihuaha, Pringle. San
Luis Potosi, Schaffner, Parry & Palmer.
- S. LINDHEIMERI, Engelm. & Gray, Pl. Lindh. i. 5.
S. Elliottii, with var. Texana, Torr. & Gray, Fl. i. 681, not
of 231. Cinereous-puberulent, at least the lower face of the leaves: slender
peduncle about equalling the leaves, articulated above the middle: petals
yellow: carpels bicuspidate. Texas, extending into adjacent Louisiana and
adjacent Mexico; first coll. by Berlandier.
- S. LONGIPES, Gray, Pl. Wright. i. 19; name several
years prior in publication to S. longipes, E. Meyer in the Flora
Capensis. Well marked by its very long and strict peduncles, with articulation
a little below the summit, and muticous carpels. It is wholly S. W. Texan.
- An outlying species not quite of this group, is the following.
- S. XANTI. A foot or two high, woody below,
scabro-puberulent: lowest leaves ovate or subcordate and slender-petioled;
upper lanceolate; all an inch or less long, dentate; uppermost small: peduncles
surpassing the leaves, articulated toward the summit: petals apparently white
but perhaps yellow, almost an inch long: carpels about 10, rugose and glabrate
at maturity, bimucronulate, the interior apex not inflexed. S.
Elliottii, var.? Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. v. 154. Cape San Lucas, Lower
- Species with calyx not at all angled: flowers in ours long-peduncled, and
- S. FILIPES, Gray, Pl. Lindh. ii. 164, Pl. Wright. i.
19. Texan and Mexican; of the S. paniculata group.
ABUTILASTRUM is a name quite appropriate for another section, namely for
Sida Lindeniana, which would be essentially an Abutilon of the
section Gayoides except for the uniovulate carpels.
 S. hederacea and S. lepidota are now
placed in the genus Malvella, as M. leprosa and M.
lepidota, together with M. sagittifolia, a segregate from M.
lepidota, and the European and South West Asian M. sherardiana.
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